Alum art photography by dr das.
The revolt started in 1946 in the Nalgonda district in Andhra pradesh, which was then part of princely state of Hyderabad, against the oppressive feudal lords and quickly spread to the Warangal and Bidar districts in around 4000 villages. Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against the local feudal landlords who were ruling the villages known as samsthans.
Communist leader Charu Majumdar wrote various articles based on Marx-Lenin-Mao thought during the period, which later came to be known as 'Historic Eight Documents' and formed the basis of naxalite movement.
In 1967 CPI(M) participates in polls and forms a coalition United Front government in West Bengal with Bangla Congress. This leads to schism in the party with younger cadres, including the Charu Majumdar, accusing CPIM of betraying the revolution.
On 25th May 1967 The rebel cadres led by Charu Majumdar launch a peasants' uprising at Naxalbari in Darjeeling district of West Bengal after a tribal youth, who had a judicial order to plough his land, was attacked by "goons" of local landlords on March 2. Tribals retaliated and started forcefully capturing back their lands.
The Factors Causing Naxalite Movement
In 2009, Naxalites were active across approximately 180 districts in ten states of India. This include , Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Jharkhand, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal.
The main reason causing Naxalite movement and its existence even in post in post cold war era is failure of implementing the 5th & 9th Schedules of the Constitution of India.
The Fifth Schedule states briefly that all scheduled areas of the country which are forest reserves and inhabited by scheduled tribes are to be administered by the governors of the states by appointing tribal advisory councils from among the tribals of a particular forest reserve or a scheduled area. Regrettably, no governor of any state in India has ever constituted tribal advisory councils of scheduled tribes living in the reserve forests or scheduled areas of the states they were governing. In this deliberately created vacuum, the chief ministers of the states have merrily administered their reserve forests by leasing forests for mining to private companies, evicting the tribals living in these forests for millennia.
The Ninth Schedule of the Constitution dealt with the fact that cultivable land which over thousands of years had come under the ownership of upper castes should be acquired by the government and redistributed among India’s landless peasantry. Since land revenue was a state subject, the states were directed to legislate land ceiling laws and implement them by acquiring farmlands from landlords and redistributing them to landless farmers who for centuries worked under the most abominable conditions on the lands of the landowners.